向俄罗斯出口是一个相当复杂的过程,但并非不可能. 如果俄罗斯是你冰球突破试玩官方网站的潜在出口目的地, 你需要仔细考虑美国的挑战.S. 出口限制和限制贸易的制裁.

U.S. 对俄罗斯的出口总额为4美元.2020年为90亿,减少了15亿.可能是由于越来越多的出口限制和制裁. The top export commodity sectors in 2020 were machinery and mechanical appliances (30.2%); chemicals, plastics, and leather products (22.4%); and transportation equipment (20.3%).

作为世界第11大经济体, 俄罗斯是世界上陆地面积最大的国家,拥有1.44亿人口. 贸易机会确实存在, 尽管挑战, so consider carefully whether Russia is a viable market for your products and services.

加强对俄罗斯的出口限制和制裁

U.S. export control restrictions and sanctions for Russia have become stricter in recent years in response to activities such as Russia’s military aggression in Ukraine (particularly Crimea), 使用化学武器, 和网络安全威胁. The U.S. has responded by placing more export restrictions on Russia’s energy and defense sectors through the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) under the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS). The U.S. also has added financial sanctions which are administered by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). 出口限制针对的是俄罗斯的个人、行业和组织. Sectoral sanctions have been applied to industries important to the Russian government such as defense, oil and gas, 和金融服务.

Overall, 对俄罗斯的出口限制是25年来最严格的, 未来可能会有更多的限制. In addition, an arms embargo to Russia was added earlier this year under Section 126.《冰球突破试玩官方网站》(ITAR)第1条. 一些例外仍然存在, 主要用于美国和美国之间的空间项目合作.S. 和俄罗斯政府.

尽管有这些挑战, opportunities still exist to export many items to Russia with an appropriate license, 或者在某些例外情况下不需要许可证. 如果你们正在考虑扩大对俄罗斯的出口市场, you should be mindful of current regulations and sanctions and have very stringent export compliance controls in place.

耳朵的限制

《冰球突破试玩官方网站》(CCL)上的许多物品需要许可证才能出口到俄罗斯, 但也有几个不是, 所以做研究是值得的. Sometimes, it’s simple – defense-related items controlled in the 600 series of Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) and space-related items controlled in 9X515 ECCNs all require a license. 两用物品, 哪些组成了大部分的eccn, 对许可证的需求取决于具体的分类. 如附录号所列若干项目. 第2部分到第746部分,因为它在俄罗斯能源工业中特别有用, a license is required if the item will be used directly or indirectly in exploration for, 或生产的, 俄罗斯深水区(超过500英尺)的石油或天然气, 北极近海地区, 或俄罗斯的页岩地层, or if the exporter is unable to determine whether the item will be used for such purposes.

几乎所有受EAR限制的产品都需要获得出口许可证, reexport, 或者从2015年起转移到克里米亚.

对出口商来说,不幸的是,现在更难获得向俄罗斯出口的许可证. BIS is following a “presumption of denial” with regard to Russia for items controlled for national security reasons and in certain other cases. Companies must provide a compelling argument as to why they should get a license to export their items to Russia, 面对如此消极的许可政策,更是如此.

The U.S. has eliminated some exceptions that previously allowed certain items to be exported to Russia without a license. For example, License Exception CIV previously authorized certain items to Country Group D:1 when intended for both a civil end use and a civil end user. 然而,2020年,包括俄罗斯在内的所有国家都取消了这一例外. BIS also recently suspended three license exceptions for Russia specifically—RPL (for replacement parts and serviced items), 技术和软件, 不受限制的), and APR (additional permissive re-export) —although these exceptions are still available for other destinations. 许可证例外RPL和TSU被广泛使用. 出口商应该知道,虽然国际清算银行已经发出了公告, these license exception suspensions have not been written into the corresponding sections of the EAR.

新的BIS军事情报终端使用/终端用户规则

In January 2021, BIS published an interim final rule that was made effective on March 16, 2021. 在第744节.22 .耳朵, 临时最终规则对出口产品提出许可证要求, reexports, and transfers of items under the Military-Intelligence End Use/End User (MIEU) rule. This rule mirrors the 军事最终用途/End User (MEU) rule and it requires a license if there is knowledge of an intended military-intelligence end use or end user for items exported to Russia and seven other countries.

军事情报的最终用途被定义为发展, production, operation, 安装(含现场安装), 维护(检查), repair, overhaul, 或翻新的, 或并入, 在美国.S. 军火清单(USML)根据《冰球突破试玩官方网站》22 CFR,第121部分. Also regulated are items classified under ECCNs ending in “A018” or in the 600 series, which are intended to support the actions or functions of a military-intelligence end-user as defined in this section. 根据临时最终规则, the exporter must apply for a license if they have knowledge of a prohibited military-intelligence end use or end user, 这是不容易确定的.

ITAR对俄罗斯的武器禁运

美国于2021年初对俄罗斯实施武器禁运, 所以任何受ITAR控制的物品都需要向俄罗斯出口的许可证. Existing licenses remain valid unless your company is notified by the Directorate of 国防贸易管制 (DDTC). Amendments and licenses in furtherance of (IFO) agreements also are subject to the new licensing policy. 但也有一些例外, 主要用于两国政府间的太空合作项目. 这些项目的申请将逐案审查.

这种变化给美国经济带来了一些额外的麻烦.S. companies. It is now more difficult to get a license if you have a Russian engineer on staff and more challenging to obtain approval for that individual to have access to ITAR-controlled technology, 适用于两个U.S. 公司和班.S. companies. ITAR also requires mandatory reporting of suspected violations to the State Department if they relate to a country under arms embargo. 如果有人知道冰球突破试玩官方网站的行动, 有意的或无意的, 对俄罗斯所做的事情, 他们现在被要求报告这些行动.

在哪里可以找到更多信息

尽管有这些挑战, 仍然存在许多向俄罗斯出口产品的机会, 但是你们必须有严格的出口控制. For more information on the export regulations and sanctions, check out the following websites:

U.S. 对俄罗斯的出口限制和制裁是有针对性的、多层次的. 因为这个原因, exporting must be done in a careful way that requires that Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) or EAR99 classifications are correct. Exporters must pay special attention to end-use and end users as they can affect license requirements. The process of applying for a license requires close scrutiny of all the parties in the transaction to understand if they are on any sanctions lists, 或者它们属于制裁名单上的另一个实体.

The entire process of exporting to Russia also now requires a greater level of administrative attention. Keeping up-to-date on ever-changing rules and sanctions can seem like a complex and overwhelming process. ECTI covers exporting to Russia in all of our 现场研讨会 and many of our on-demand e-seminars. Non-U.S. 与会者可以在冰球突破试玩官方网站在美国以外举办的现场研讨会上获得这些材料.S. 通过冰球突破试玩官方网站的非美国.S. e-seminars. 看看冰球突破试玩官方网站最新的工具 & 这里的冰球突破试玩官方网站.

联系出口合规培训机构

ECTI can help you easily stay current with the ever-changing landscape of export regulations. Visit www.hotatedon-aomori.com 了解冰球突破试玩官方网站的公司,冰球突破试玩官方网站的教师,冰球突破试玩官方网站的员工和冰球突破试玩官方网站的尊敬 出口合规专业人员(ECoP®)认证项目. 寻找即将到来 e-seminars现场研讨会 and 生活冰球突破试玩官方网站 and 浏览冰球突破试玩官方网站80多个按需冰球突破试玩官方网站的目录访问冰球突破试玩官方网站的ECTI学院. You can also call the 出口合规培训机构 at for more information.

Scott Gearity是ECTI公司的总裁.

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