墨西哥 is the second largest export market for U.S. goods 和 products. Like 加拿大, 墨西哥 enjoys a special trade relationship with the U.S. that has grown substantially since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect in 1994.

Economically, 墨西哥 is a growing market with established industries 和 an upper middle-income population. The inflation rate is lower than that of the U.S. 和 the country is rebounding from COVID-19. Since NAFTA was enacted, the Mexican economy has become much more integrated with the U.S. economy, as well as with the Canadian economy. NAFTA was effective in easing trade barriers 和 reducing the cost of moving items across borders for all three countries. 美国nited States-墨西哥-加拿大 (USMCA) agreement, which replaced NAFTA in 2020 with minor changes, continues to ease trade between these three countries.

U.S. 出口 to 墨西哥 accounted for $212.67 billion in 2020 和 represented 14.9% of total U.S. 出口. The Bureau of Industry 和 Security (国际清算银行) reported that the U.S. exported $15.7 billion worth of base metal items to 墨西哥 in 2020, representing 27.2% of total U.S. 出口 for those commodities. 美国.S. exported $72.6 billion in machinery 和 mechanical appliances, 21.0% of total U.S. 出口 for that category, 和 $4.7 billion in textiles 和 footwear products, representing 19.1% of total U.S. 出口 for that category.

Leading U.S. export categories to 墨西哥 included:

  • Electrical 和 electronic equipment
  • Machinery, nuclear reactors, boilers, 和 machinery
  • Mineral fuels, oils, 和 distillation products
  • Vehicles other than railway or tram vehicles
  • Plastics

How Exporting to 墨西哥 Differs from Exporting to 加拿大

Although both 墨西哥 和 加拿大 benefited from NAFTA, each country has its own unique trade relationship with the U.S. As we discussed in detail in a recent blog post on 加拿大, our northern neighbor enjoys special status with relatively few U.S. export control restrictions. This is due to the long history of security partnership between the U.S. 和 加拿大, the high volume of trade conducted, 和 the extensive integration of U.S. 和 Canadian industrial bases across many sectors, importantly including defense.

To recap: The large majority of items subject to the Export Administration Regulations (耳朵) can be exported to 加拿大 No License Required (NLR). Under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) administered by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC), the export of sensitive military items identified on the U.S. Munitions List (USML) often require a license, but many items qualify for export under exemption to authorized Canadian government 和 private sector entities when intended for end use within 加拿大 or the U.S. The Canadian government has secured this preferential ITAR treatment in part by extending its own export control list to cover defense articles subject to the ITAR.

墨西哥 does not share quite the favored status of 加拿大 和 thus, export controls are somewhat more restrictive. 然而, in recent years, 墨西哥 has joined several multilateral groups or “regimes” as part of a process which included strengthening its own export control laws. As a result, the U.S. has relaxed some of its export controls for 墨西哥 which makes it possible to export more items to 墨西哥 without a license. The regimes enable various countries to work together to have similar export controls, making the controls more effective 和 consistent. They create a level playing field 和 makes it harder for technologies to get into the wrong h和s. They also reduce the possibility of a country using relaxed export restrictions to favor its own domestic industries 和 exporters. Each regime focuses on particular kinds of technologies. Specifically, 墨西哥 is now a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement, the 核 Suppliers Group, 和 the Australia Group.

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耳朵 和 墨西哥

In late 2020, 国际清算银行 added 墨西哥 to Country Group A:6, a shift which eliminated further license requirements. This change made 墨西哥 an eligible destination under License Exception STA (Strategic Trade Authorization) for most items controlled for national security (NS) reasons only, increasing opportunities in which U.S. exporters may send items to 墨西哥 without a license.

然而, a fair number of items still require a license for export to 墨西哥. 国际清算银行 reported that it reviewed 618 export/re-export applications in 2020 和 approved 520 of them with a total value of $432.8 million. Four of the top licensed ECCNs were related to military aircraft: 9E610 for  technology; production, 测试, or inspection equipment controlled by 9B610; materials controlled by 9C610; 和 software controlled by 9D610. Rounding out the top five was ECCN 3A981 polygraphs. Notably, 国际清算银行 reported that it did not deny any applications for 墨西哥 in 2020.

墨西哥’s Maquiladora Program

Another difference between 出口 to 加拿大 和 墨西哥 is that a significant portion of U.S. 出口 to 墨西哥 are raw materials, 部分, 和 components that are used in the manufacture 和 production of goods for return to the U.S., or onward shipment to other countries. Labor costs are lower in 墨西哥, so many U.S. companies have built subsidiaries there or engage the services of a “maquiladora,” a factory or manufacturing facility focused on the export market.

墨西哥’s maquiladora program, officially known as IMMEX, allows manufacturers operating in 墨西哥 to import raw materials 和 equipment into the country as a “temporary” import that is both tax 和 duty free (including IVA, the value added tax). The materials being temporarily imported “must be used in an industrial or service process intended to produce, transform, or repair goods for subsequent export.” The final products are then exported back to the U.S. or other countries. Located primarily near the U.S.-墨西哥 border, maquiladoras offer companies cost effective production due to 墨西哥’s lower labor costs 和 the duty 和 tax advantages mentioned above. License Exception TMP authorizes temporary 出口 of most items to 墨西哥 so long as they are intended for IMMEX factories 和 ultimately return to the U.S.

ITAR – Defense Material 和 Arms Export Controls for 墨西哥

A substantial amount of defense material is exported from the U.S. to 墨西哥 – nearly $1.3 billion in defense articles 和 defense services were authorized for export to 墨西哥 in 2020. The Mexican government is a customer of U.S. defense manufacturers 和 these kinds of products are subject to ITAR controls. ITAR does not impose any special restrictions on 墨西哥, but it also does not allow the country the special treatment that 加拿大 receives.

One area of concern is the export to 墨西哥 of small arms such as pistols, rifles, 和 firearms. Both governments are highly aware of the potential for these 出口 to be diverted to criminal or terrorist enterprises. Firearms used to be controlled almost exclusively under the ITAR, but since early 2020, many firearms are now subject to the 耳朵. The 国际清算银行 is now processing more license applications for 墨西哥, including those for firearms. 事实上, the number one 国际清算银行 classification by value for export under license to 墨西哥 was firearms (ECCN 0A501). The items controlled in this ECCN were previously covered by the ITAR.

Where to Get More Information

You can find more information on exporting to 墨西哥 at these websites:

U.S. export regulations are inherently complex 和 change frequently, even with longst和ing trade partners such as 墨西哥. ECTI covers exporting to 墨西哥 in all of our live seminars 和 many of our on-dem和 e-seminars. 班.S. attendees can access this material at our live seminars conducted outside the U.S. 和 through our non-U.S. e-seminars. Check out our la测试 tools & resources here.

Contact the Export Compliance Training Institute

ECTI’s seminars 和 other programs help you to stay current with the ever-changing l和scape of export regulations. 访问 www.hotatedon-aomori.com to learn about our company, our faculty, our staff 和 our esteemed Export Compliance Professional (ECoP®) certification program. To find upcoming e-seminarslive seminars 和 live webinars 和 browse our catalog of 80-plus on-dem和 webinarsvisit our ECTI Academy. You can also call the Export Compliance Training Institute at for more information.

Scott Gearity is President of 冰球突破试玩官方网站